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2018 Courses

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PSC/IR 101 Introduction to Comparative Politics
Bonnie M. Meguid
Fall 2018 — MWF 10:25 - 11:15
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This course is an introduction to the study of domestic political institutions, processes, and outcomes across and within countries. The course surveys key concepts and major theoretical contributions in the field of comparative politics, including the challenges for democratization and democratic consolidation, the possibility of revolution, how countries vary in their political and electoral institutions and why these variations matter, and the power of social forces such as ethnicity, culture, and social capital. Country cases are drawn from different regions of the world and historical periods to ground students in the set of tools of comparative analysis.


PSC/IR 101 Introduction to Comparative Politics
Sergio Ascencio Bonfil
Summer 2018 — MTWR 9:00 - 12:00
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July 2 - July 27
This course is an introduction to the study of domestic political institutions, processes, and outcomes across and within countries. The course surveys key concepts and major theoretical contributions in the field of comparative politics, including the challenges for democratization and democratic consolidation, the possibility of revolution, how countries vary in their political and electoral institutions and why these variations matter, and the power of social forces such as ethnicity, culture, and social capital. Country cases are drawn from different regions of the world and historical periods to ground students in the set of tools of comparative analysis.


PSC/IR 102 Introduction to International Political Economy
Randall Stone
Spring 2018 — MW 10:25 - 11:40
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All politics is global politics. Global flows of trade, capital and labor transform societies, unleash new political movements and challenge existing political institutions. States and other actors respond in ways that impose costs on other states, creating crises and opportunities for cooperation. This course will broadly survey the politics of international economics, focusing in particular on trade and finance. Along the way, it will introduce students to a range of economic models, but it will assume no prior exposure to economics.


PSC 105 Introduction to American Politics
Mary A. Kroeger
Fall 2018 — MWF 9:00 - 9:50
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This course will introduce students to the systematic study of American political institutions, processes, and behavior. We will focus on key questions about the political system and how political scientists address these questions. The strategic actions and interactions of various political actors will be examined from a variety of theoretical and empirical approaches. Political polarization, economic inequality, presidential power, the role of the administrative state will be discussed throughout the course.


PSC/IR 106 Introduction to International Relations
Andrea Morris
Summer 2018 — MTWR 9:00 - 12:00
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May 21 - June 15
This course provides students with the background and conceptual tools they need to understand contemporary international relations. The course will introduce students to the wide range of issues that make up the study of international relations, including the workings of the state system, the causes of international conflict and violence, and international economic relations. Students will be introduced to the literature in a broad way, to make them familiar with the main theoretical traditions in the field. Students will be asked, as much as possible, to read original texts, rather than a textbook. Time permitting, we will also examine topics of particular current interest, such as the evolving nature of power in the post-Cold War environment as well as special global challenges like nation-building and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.


PSC/IR 106 Introduction to International Relations
Jeheung Ryu
Summer 2018 — MTWR 13:00 - 16:00
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July 2 - July 27
This introductory course is designed to provide students with the history, background and analytical tools to understand and analyze contemporary international issues among states. The course will cover the wide range of issues involved in the field of international relations including the modern theoretical debates such as neorealism and neoliberalism, the causes and effects of international conflicts, and economic development and globalization. In addition, we will also explore important topics in the 21st century such as transnational terrorism, international law and human rights, global warming, financial crises, and the rise of China. The ultimate goal of this course is to develop critical thinking concerning issues in world politics.


PSC 107 Introduction to Positive Political Theory
Scott Abramson
Spring 2018 — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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This course introduces students to positive political theory, a rigorous set of tools that helps clarify key questions in political science. Through examples drawn from all aspects of the political process (from elections to lawmaking to regulation) as well as from everyday life (where should we go for dinner?) and Hollywood (Russell Crowe and Reese Witherspoon as political scientists?), we will study how the rules of the game affect the decisions politicians make as well as the policy outcomes we observe.


PSC 200 Data Analysis I
Sergio Montero
Fall 2018 — MW 14:00 - 15:15
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Data analysis has become a key part of many fields including politics, business, law, and public policy. This course covers the fundamentals of data analysis, giving students the necessary statistical skills to understand and critically analyze contemporary political, legal, and policy puzzles. Lectures will focus on the theory and practice of quantitative analysis, and lab sessions will guide students through the particulars of statistical software. No prior knowledge of statistics or data analysis is required. Without special permission of the instructor, students may not enroll in this course if they have earned credit and a letter grade for ECO 230, PSC 205, PSY/CSP 211, STT 211, STT 212, STT 213, STT 214, or any other course in statistics, or if they have received a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement exam in Statistics.


PSC 200 Data Analysis I
Shichao Ma
Summer 2018 — MTWR 13:00 - 16:00
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May 21 - June 15
Data analysis has become a key part of many fields including politics, business, law, and public policy. This course covers the fundamentals of data analysis, giving students the necessary statistical skills to understand and critically analyze contemporary political, legal, and policy puzzles. Lectures will focus on the theory and practice of quantitative analysis, and lab sessions will guide students through the particulars of statistical software. No prior knowledge of statistics or data analysis is required. Without special permission of the instructor, students may not enroll in this course if they have earned credit and a letter grade for ECO 230, PSC 205, PSY/CSP 211, STT 211, STT 212, STT 213, STT 214, or any other course in statistics, or if they have received a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement exam in Statistics.


PSC 200 Data Analysis I
Kevin A. Clarke
Spring 2018 — MWF 14:00 - 14:50
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Data analysis has become a key part of many fields including politics, business, law, and public policy. This course covers the fundamentals of data analysis, giving students the necessary statistical skills to understand and critically analyze contemporary political, legal, and policy puzzles. Lectures will focus on the theory and practice of quantitative analysis, and weekly lab sessions will guide students through the particulars of statistical software. No prior knowledge of statistics or data analysis is required. Without special permission of the instructor, students may not enroll in this course if they have earned credit and a letter grade for ECO 230, PSC 205, PSY/CSP 211, STT 211, STT 212, STT 213, STT 214, or any other course in statistics, or if they have received a score of 4 or 5 on the Advanced Placement exam in Statistics.


PSC 202W Argument in Political Science
Gerald Gamm
Fall 2018 ("W" Required) — MWF 10:25 - 11:15
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Students generally take PSC 202 in their sophomore year, but the course is also open to juniors and seniors. The course introduces students to the questions, concepts, and analytical approaches of political scientists and emphasizes careful reading and analytical writing. This version of the course focuses on the tension between majority rule and minority rights in the American political tradition. Topics include tyranny of the majority, slavery, civic engagement, political parties, women's rights, racism, economic and political inequality, legislative organization, and representation. Readings are drawn from classic texts in American thought—the Declaration of Independence, "The Federalist," Tocqueville's "Democracy in America," the Gettysburg Address—as well as from books and articles written by contemporary political scientists. Note: In this academic year, PSC 202 will only be offered in the fall semester. It will NOT be offered in the spring.


PSC 205 Data Analysis II
Curtis S. Signorino
Spring 2018 — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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This course builds on PSC 200, Data Analysis I, taking the linear regression model as its starting point. We will explore various statistical techniques for analyzing a world of data that is relevant to political science in particular, and to the social sciences more broadly. We will examine models for binary data, durations, counts, censoring and truncation, self-selection, and strategic choice, among others. These models will be applied to topics such as international conflict, civil war onset, parliamentary cabinet survival, international sanctions, campaign contributions, and voting. Students will be taught how to (1) frame research hypotheses, (2) analyze data using the appropriate statistical model, and (3) interpret and present their results. Statistical analysis will be conducted using R. Prerequisites: Students should have taken a course (such as PSC 200, ECO 230, STT 211, STT 212, STT 213, or STT 214) that introduces them to hypothesis tests, confidence intervals, and linear regression. Students who have not used R in a previous course should familiarize themselves with it prior to the first class. Specifically, students should be able to load a data set, print summary statistics, create a scatterplot, and conduct linear regression.


PSC 215 American Elections
Lynda W. Powell
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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Each semester we study the causes and consequences of the most recent elections and the issue dynamics that are shaping the next set of elections. We consider how our election rules, such as the presidential Electoral College and the single member plurality elections used in congressional elections, affect the choices candidates make to win office. And we identify how these rules advantage or disadvantage various types of candidates. Some issues, such as party polarization and campaign finance reform are generally in the news and of thus of continuing interest. But new issues will arise and we will discuss these as they come up over the course of the semester.


PSC 223 Constitutional Structure and Rights
Thomas H. Jackson
Fall 2018 — MW 11:50 - 13:05
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In this course, through the lens of the Constitution and Supreme Court cases, we examine the essential structure of the American legal system (both separation of powers at the federal level and the authority of, and relationship among, states and the federal government), as well as the essential nature of civil rights of citizens vis-a-vis the political order. Topics covered include the nature of the Supreme Court's authority; separation of powers; federal limits on state powers; and individual rights, including economic rights, certain of the rights embraced by the First, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments, and equal protection rights under the Fourteenth Amendment. The ability to read and discuss (as well as place in perspective and disagree with) Supreme Court opinions is an essential part of the course.


PSC 227 Designing American Democracy
Gregory Sasso
Spring 2018 — MW 11:50 - 13:05
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When can Congress agree on the best policy for the country (and what does "best" even mean)? How does the electoral college affect Presidential campaigns? How does the Supreme Court choose what cases to hear? This course uses a rigorous set of tools including game theory to help students understand the structure of American government. With these tools, we will study US electoral systems, Congress, the Presidency and the executive branch, federalism, and the courts, with a focus on the challenges of group decision making and the inevitable conflicts that arise between the branches of government. Students will leave the course with a deeper understanding of how rules and strategy shape U.S. democracy. No prior background in game theory is necessary for this course.


PSC 230 Law in Public Health Practice
Molly McNulty
Spring 2018 — MW 18:15 - 19:30
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The course is about the legal and social justice framework for urgent public health issues, such as regulation of vaccinations, e-cigarettes, and abortion.


IR 231 Cold War
Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Spring 2018 — TR 15:25 - 16:40
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The Cold War is typically seen as a political struggle between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., yet it was played out on and directly affected the peoples of Europe — Western, Central and Eastern. Through the prism of its societies, the course will trace the splitting of the continent, the deepening divides, and the overriding consequences for states across Europe. From a socio-political perspective focused especially on Central Europe, we will analyze the most dramatic and significant turning points such as the Berlin Airlift in 1949 and the Polish Solidarity strikes in 1980. We will survey internal as well as external, actions and reactions spanning nearly five decades until the implosion of the entire communist system between 1989 and 1991. The course will close with a look at currently rising tensions between Europe and Russia, already referred to as a new Cold War.


PSC 233W Innovation in Public Service
Stuart Jordan
Fall 2018 ("W" Required) — MW 10:25 - 11:40
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Is politics anything more than a series of televised shouting matches? Yes, but much of what matters isn't televised. While politicians in Washington and state capitals make speeches for the cameras, hundreds of thousands of public servants work everyday outside of the limelight to determine the quality of government's essential services -- including policing, emergency services, education, and public health. This course exposes students to the problems faced and solutions invented by leaders of the Rochester area's public service agencies. By interacting directly with these leaders and the "street-level bureaucrats" who implement government policy, students will learn how to grapple with the practical problems of governance.


PSC 236 Health Care and the Law
Molly McNulty
Fall 2018 — MW 18:15 - 19:30
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This course provides an introduction to the legal foundations of health care in America. It is the responsibility of the American government to promote and protect the health and welfare of the public while respecting the interests, and upholding the rights, of the individual. The content of this course addresses how the law balances these collective and individual rights. The material covers a broad range of legal issues in health care, including autonomy, privacy, liberty, and proprietary interests, from the perspective of the provider(s) and the patient.


IR 237 Gender and Development
Milena Novy-Marx
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — R 15:25 - 18:05
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This course examines a range of issues in international development from a gender perspective, with a particular focus on women and girls, but also men and boys. Students will review recent literature on gender and sustainable development, including how development policies, programs and issues affect men and women, and girls and boys, differently. The course also covers recent trends in economic growth and sustainable development across low, middle and high-income countries. Students will have the opportunity to examine development issues, policies, and programs that address poverty and development in a range of sectors including health, education, agriculture, microfinance, and the environment.


PSC 237 U.S. Policymaking Processes
Mary A. Kroeger
Spring 2018 — TR 9:40 - 10:55
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This course will give an introduction to how public policy is made in the United States. People, organizations, and political institutions will be discussed individually and how these entities amalgamate to create and implement public policy. Case studies of recent policymaking (e.g., regulating tobacco, financial regulation) will be central components of the course.


PSC/IR 239 International Environmental Law & Policy
Terry Noto
Spring 2018 — MW 14:00 - 15:15
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An examination of international environmental law and policy with a special focus on efforts to address climate change. This course serves as a companion to PSC 246, but PSC 246 is not a prerequisite. The goal of this course is to provide a foundational understanding of this rapidly developing, controversial field. Topics include consideration of the scientific, political, and economic drivers of international environmental law; the variety of tools (e.g., treaties, agreements, "soft law," voluntary incentive programs and market based approaches); and examples of how some international environmental issues have been addressed to date. Finally, we will examine the 2015 Paris Climate Change Accord, subsequent developments and international efforts to get closer to a "grand climate solution." This course will be taught through lectures, discussion, several concise papers, and a group discussion and project(s).


PSC 240 Criminal Procedure and Constitutional Principles
Edward L. Fiandach
Spring 2018 — MW 16:50 - 18:05
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Through analysis of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, we examine criminal procedure as elaborated by federal and state court decisions. Topics include arrest procedures, search and seizure, right to counsel, and police interrogation and confessions. We will discuss the theoretical principles of criminal procedure and the application of those principles to the actual operation of the criminal court system.


PSC 241 Urban Change and City Politics
Gerald Gamm
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — T 12:30 - 15:15
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Through intensive reading and discussion, we examine the politics and history of American cities. While we read scholarship drawing on the experiences of an array of cities—including Chicago, New York, Detroit, Boston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, New Haven, Atlanta, Buffalo, and Charlotte—our emphasis is on commonalities in the urban experience as well as on systematic differences. We analyze the relationship of cities to their hinterlands in the early stages of urban development, the rise of ethnic neighborhoods, suburbanization, industrialization, de-industrialization, housing and jobs, concentrated poverty, and population changes. Race, ethnicity, and class are central to this course, not only in understanding changes in neighborhoods but also in the nature of politics and governmental arrangements.


PSC 243 Environmental Politics
Lawrence Rothenberg
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 9:40 - 10:55
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An examination of environmental issues facing the United States from a social scientific perspective. Topics include the reasons for environmental regulation and the means to deals with associated problems, the history of environmental policy, the state of contemporary environmental policy and current efforts at change, the role of state and local governments, the impact of environmental activists, and the state of climate change policies. Although there is considerable time devoted to lecture, students are strongly encouraged to participate. Each student will also develop and briefly present a research paper which investigates a relevant issue of personal interest.


PSC 246 Environmental Law and Policy
Terry Noto
Fall 2018 — TR 15:25 - 16:40
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An examination of federal environmental law and policy from a practical and historical perspective. This course will provide a basic foundational understanding of U.S. environmental law and help students develop the tools necessary to critique and improve environmental policy making. Topics include an overview of key federal environmental laws, some of the major loopholes, how environmental laws are shaped through agency regulation, judicial interpretation, political pressure, and their efficacy at safeguarding the environment and the public. The course will be taught through a combination of lectures, a group project focused on a specific case study, and student-led discussions about key aspects of environmental laws. Students will finish by considering emerging environmental issues and ways to address them.


PSC 248 Discrimination
Kevin A. Clarke
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 12:30 - 13:45
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An examination of discrimination from a social scientific perspective. Topics covered include defining discrimination, types of discrimination under the law, testing for discrimination, discrimination experiments, and a survey of what social scientists have discovered about discrimination in the areas of policing, bail, retail sales, automobile sales, and home mortgages. Although there is considerable time devoted to lecture, students are encouraged to participate.


IR 249 Israel/Palestine
Aaron Hughes
Fall 2018 — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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This course will provide a non-partisan introduction to the conflict between these two national movements. Discussion will focus on an examination of historical documents, in addition to understanding of how it plays out in literature and film.


IR 249 Israel/Palestine
Aaron Hughes
Spring 2018 — TR 14:00 - 15:15
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This course will provide a non-partisan introduction to the conflict between these two national movements. Discussion will focus on an examination of historical documents, in addition to understanding of how it plays out in literature and film.


PSC/IR 250 Comparative Democratic Representation
G. Bingham Powell, Jr.
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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This course introduces the concept and practice of political representation in contemporary democracies, focusing largely on the developed world. After discussing goals of representation, it traces representation from the values and electoral behavior of citizens through the formation of legislatures and executives to the implementation of public policies. It compares the consequences of different institutional arrangements and party systems for party and policy congruence, and considers other benefits and costs as well.


PSC/IR 251 Authoritarianism
Jack Paine
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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Despite three waves of democratization, many countries around the world are still governed by leaders who hold power by means other than free and fair elections. In this course we will examine topics including how authoritarian regimes survive, the conditions under which they democratize, and their human welfare consequences. We will cover historical authoritarian cases such as twentieth-century communist and fascist regimes, and current authoritarian regimes in China, the Middle East, and Africa. The course will cover political science theories of authoritarian regimes and individual country case studies. Class will be conducted in a weekly discussion format.


PSC/IR 252 Ethnic Politics
Bethany Lacina
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — R 14:00 - 16:40
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This course takes up three questions: What is ethnicity and when is it politically important? How does ethnic politics matter for economic outcomes? What is the relationship between ethnic politics and political violence? Class materials will include theoretical accounts of ethnic politics and research from a variety of countries, including Nigeria, India, Thailand, Syria, France, and the United States. One of the themes of the course will be comparing research on ethnic politics conducted in the United States to research from other contexts. Students will be evaluated based on weekly individual and/or group projects, preparation to discuss weekly readings; participation in class; and a take-home final essay.


PSC/IR 253 Comparative Political Parties
Bonnie M. Meguid
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — T 14:00 - 16:40
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This seminar examines the nature of political parties and political competition across democracies in the developed and developing worlds. Issues analyzed include the formation of different types of parties, their role in agenda-setting, policy-making and representation, and their transformation in the post-World War II era.


PSC/IR 255 Poverty and Development
Anderson Frey
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 11:05 - 12:20
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Why are some countries poor, while others enjoy a high standard of living? Why some enjoy stability and freedoms, while others suffer with corruption, repression and violence? Why countries stagnate or decline in their economic development. This course is designed to provide a broad theoretical framework for thinking about these problems, focusing on the political and institutional causes of differences in economic development across countries. Topics include the role of political systems, leaders, and institutions in economic growth. The relationship between development and ethnic and class conflict, corruption, culture, the organization of state, electoral rules, and democratization. The role of Western intervention in the developing world, from slavery to modern foreign aid.


PSC/IR 267 Identity, Ethnicity and Nationalism
Bonnie M. Meguid
Fall 2018 — MW 14:00 - 15:15
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This course explores the concepts of identity, ethnicity and nationalism from a comparative perspective. Drawing upon theories from political science, anthropology, sociology and economics, we will examine how identity is defined and how societies use these constructions in, among other things, nation-building, war, and party competition. Theoretical readings will be supplemented with empirical studies from developed and developing countries across different time periods.


PSC/IR 268 International Organization
Randall Stone
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — MW 9:00 - 10:15
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This course focuses on a key mechanism facilitating international cooperation—international institutions. The course examines institutions ranging from informal institutions, or regimes, to formal, intergovernmental organizations. We ask the following questions: how are institutions established? What makes them change over time? What impact (if any) do they have? How do they influence government policies? How do they operate? How do they structure decision-making? How do international institutions affect domestic politics? The course will begin by focusing on different theoretical perspectives on these questions, and continue by examining international institutions in specific issue areas.


PSC/IR 272 Theories of International Relations
Scott Tyson
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — TR 14:00 - 15:15
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How do we explain patterns of war and peace? Why do states with common interests often fail to cooperate? This course surveys theories of international relations, focusing on explanations of conflict and cooperation. In particular, it examines the roles of individual choice, strategic interaction, uncertainty, power, domestic politics, and anarchy. Students participate in an internet-based simulation of an international crisis. The course also serves as an introduction to game theory, and students will be expected to solve game theory problems in homework and exams. Students taking this course for writing credit register for PSC 272W and write a substantial research paper in addition to the other course requirements.


PSC/IR 273 The Politics of Terrorism
Alexander Lee
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — MW 14:00 - 15:15
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Over the past century, terrorism has become a common feature of world politics, enabling small groups of individuals to have a disproportionate influence on the politics of both developed and underdeveloped countries. This course explores some of the fundamental questions of terrorism: Why individuals join terrorist groups, why terrorist groups adopt certain tactics such as suicide bombing, how terrorist groups organize themselves, and what counterterrorism strategies are effective? No previous knowledge of the subject is required.


PSC/IR 278 Foundations of Modern International Politics
Hein Goemans
Spring 2018 ("W" Optional) — R 15:25 - 18:05
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The bargaining model of war is the main theoretical tool in the study of international conflict these days. But the model brackets, i.e., ignores, the question of what gets put on the bargaining table in the first place, and what leaders and states choose not to contest. In this course, we examine the issues states fight over from both a historical as well as contemporary perspective. The course will involve some basic new analytical tools such as GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and some very basic data analysis.


IR 286 Political Economy of Developing Countries
Paula Ganga
Fall 2018 ("W" Required) — M 15:25 - 18:05
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This course examines the link between states and markets, between political institutions and their economic consequences. Students will be introduced to a variety of methods such as historical analysis, formal models, case studies and statistical analysis. This course seeks to answer several questions: (1) What is the role of government in the economy? (2) How has this role varied in time and across regions? (3) What do changes in this balance mean for political and economic institutions? Examples will be drawn from Eastern Europe, Russia, China, Brazil, and other parts of the developing world.


PSC 288 Game Theory
Paulo Barelli
Fall 2018 — TR 9:40 - 10:55
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Game theory is a systematic study of strategic situations. It is a theory that helps us analyze economic and political strategic issues, such as behavior of individuals in a group, competition among firms in a market, platform choices of political candidates, and so on. We will develop the basic concepts and results of game theory, including simultaneous and sequential move games, repeated games and games with incomplete information. The objective of the course is to enable the student to analyze strategic situations on his/her own. The emphasis of the course is on theoretical aspects of strategic behavior, so familiarity with mathematical formalism is desirable.


PSC 288 Game Theory
Tasos Kalandrakis
Spring 2018 — MW 15:25 - 16:40
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Game theory is a systematic study of strategic situations. It is a theory that helps us analyze economic and political strategic issues, such as behavior of individuals in a group, competition among firms in a market, platform choices of political candidates, and so on. We will develop the basic concepts and results of game theory, including simultaneous and sequential move games, repeated games and games with incomplete information. The objective of the course is to enable the student to analyze strategic situations on his/her own. The emphasis of the course is on theoretical aspects of strategic behavior, so familiarity with mathematical formalism is desirable.


PSC/IR 289 The Role of the State in Global Historical Perspective
Joseph E. Inikori
Spring 2018 — T 14:00 - 16:40
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The debate on the role of the state versus that of the free market in the socioeconomic process is as old as the history of political economy. We discuss what economists, political scientists, & economic historians characterize as the Washington consensus versus the Beijing consensus or the Asian model. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions of some notable thinkers — Adam Smith, Alexander Hamilton, Friedrich List, John Maynard Keynes, & Friedrich von Hayek. The greater part of the course deals with selected historical cases across the globe. The discussions are informed by a political economy conceptual framework, which helps to explain the politics and economics of state policy and the long-run historical processes that created the political & economic conditions. Students' performance is based on three short essays (four typed pages each) presented to the class for discussion and thereafter revised for grading. No mid-term & final examinations.


PSC 290 The Historical Origins of Unequal Development Among Ethnic Nationalities and State Policy
Joseph E. Inikori
Spring 2018 — MW 10:25 - 11:40
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The 2010 Brazilian national census shows 97.2 million Afro-Brazilians and 90.6 million Whites. These two ethnic nationalities have developed unequally since the establishment of colonial Brazil by Portugal in the sixteenth century. The 2010 census shows the average income of Afro-Brazilians was less than half that of White Brazilians. In 2009, the wealth gap between White and Black American families was $236,500. The most populous African nation, Nigeria, shows similar inequality among its major ethnic nationalities. This magnitude of inequality among ethnic nationalities has given rise to serious problems in inter-group relations in the three countries. This course aims to trace, comparatively, the historical origins of the phenomenon, examine the political and economic consequences, and discuss the politics and economics of state policy designed to address it.


PSC 291 First Amendment and Religion
Thomas H. Jackson
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional) — T 14:00 - 16:40
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The Constitution helps define, as it perhaps reflects, American society. In this scheme, religion has a special role. It, arguably uniquely, is given both constitutional protection (free exercise) as well as a constitutional limitation (no establishment). Religion's placement in the Bill of Rights (as a part of the First Amendment) suggests its importance (both in protection and in limitation) to the founders, and religion's role in society today remains important and controversial. This course examines the historical forces that led to the adoption of the religion clauses of the First Amendment, the subsequent development of those clauses (importantly through the close reading of key Supreme Court opinions), and the nature of contemporary controversies, both judicial and academic, over the scope and meaning of the religion clauses of the First Amendment.


PSC/IR 299 Communicating Your Professional Identity in Political Science & International Relations
Kellie Hernandez
Spring 2018 — R 16:50 - 18:05
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Two-credit course. Cannot be used to satisfy any requirements for the major or minor in Political Science or International Relations. This interactive course teaches "real life" communication skills and strategies that help students present their best professional selves and develop a fulfilling career. Students will explore and articulate their internship, career and graduate school goals for distinct audiences and purposes as they develop a professional communication portfolio of materials such as resumes, cover letters, statements of purpose, electronic communications, elevator pitches, and online profiles. Students will revise and refine their written and spoken work based on feedback from peers, instructors, and alumni. By the semester's end, students will have gained extensive experience with the communication skills expected in today's competitive environment. This course is suitable for second-semester sophomores through first-semester seniors; all others require permission of the instructor.


PSC 304 Urban Crime and Justice
Craig Doran
Fall 2018 — R 18:15 - 19:30
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This course offers a unique opportunity for students to engage critically with justice in courthouses in local communities. Students will participate in hands-on experiential work in a selected area of focus at the Monroe County Courthouse in Rochester. Areas of focus to choose from include adult criminal justice, juvenile justice, treatment courts, domestic violence court, court-community partnerships, or equity disparities in the court. Weekly class meetings include university faculty and Judge Craig Doran, Chief Supervising Judge of all courts in the region, who share their perspectives, research, and experience on the matters addressed by students at the courthouse. This provides students with immediate immersion in both the theoretical and practical applications of justice in society. This course requires students spend 6 hours per week at the Monroe County Courts at the Hall of Justice in Rochester.


PSC 304 Urban Crime and Justice
Craig Doran
Spring 2018 — T 16:50 - 18:05
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This course offers a unique opportunity for students to engage critically with justice in courthouses in local communities. Students will participate in hands-on experiential work in a selected area of focus at the Monroe County Courthouse in Rochester. Areas of focus to choose from include adult criminal justice, juvenile justice, treatment courts, domestic violence court, court-community partnerships, or equity disparities in the court. Weekly class meetings include university faculty and Judge Craig Doran, Chief Supervising Judge of all courts in the region, who share their perspectives, research, and experience on the matters addressed by students at the courthouse. This provides students with immediate immersion in both the theoretical and practical applications of justice in society. This course requires students spend 6 hours per week at the Monroe County Courts at the Hall of Justice in Rochester.


PSC/IR 355 Democratic Political Processes
G. Bingham Powell, Jr.
Fall 2018 — W 14:15 - 16:55
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This course is designed primarily as a graduate seminar in comparative politics. Its object is to introduce the participants to the comparative study of democratic political processes, a subfield focusing on choosing political leaders and making political decisions in the context of free and competitive elections. We begin by discussing the meaning and measure of contemporary democracy . We then turn to political parties, as key institutions linking citizens and policymakers, and to policymaking institutions. The last part of the course focuses on the comparative study of individual citizens' attitudes and behavior (political culture, participation and voting, interest groups.) Students are responsible for a variety of presentations as well as a midterm and a research paper.. No background in comparative politics is assumed. It is appropriate as an introduction for students new to the field or as an "outside" course. Undergraduates require permission of instructor.


PSC/IR 373 Territory and Group Conflict
Hein Goemans
Fall 2018 — R 12:30 - 15:15
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This graduate seminar examines a long neglected topic: the role of territory in group politics. The goal is to build a basic understanding of why, when, how and which territory becomes contested. We will read from a broad range of disciplines. Each student is expected to write two short papers for two different sessions, which are not to exceed 1500 words. Each paper should provide an independent commentary of you own on some aspect of that week's readings. These papers form the background against which we will discuss the readings in class. In addition, each student is required to write a 20-25 page research paper, which focuses in depth on one of the discussed emerging research agendas. As in other graduate seminars, the course will be conducted almost exclusively through discussion. Hence it is crucial that students do the reading in advance, to set aside time to reflect on the readings, and to prepare comments and questions.


PSC/IR 389W Senior Honors Seminar
Jack Paine
Fall 2018 ("W" Required) — R 14:00 - 16:40
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This course will teach students how to write an original social scientific research paper. Students enrolled in the class are expected to complete a thesis in the spring. In this course, they will choose a research topic and question, find an advisor in the political science department, read the relevant literature, generate hypotheses, choose appropriate cases for quantitative or qualitative analysis, begin collecting data, think about strategies for addressing confounding concerns, and at the end of the semester produce a paper of roughly 12-15 pages that constitutes a draft of the final thesis. Along the way, students will read high-quality published articles, learn how to interpret regression tables and how to produce their own, understand pros and cons of various research design techniques, replicate a published research article, and learn how to organize and to write a research paper. This course is primarily geared toward teaching students how to write statistical empirical research papers, although it will also provide guidance for writing theses using game theory or qualitative methods.


PSC 394 Local Law and Politics Internships
Lynda W. Powell
Fall 2018 ("W" Optional)
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Most internship placements are in the District Attorney's or Public Defender's offices or in the local offices of U.S. members of Congress or Senators. Other internships are available depending on student interest. Interns work 10-12 hours per week through the entire semester. Grades are primarily based on a research paper. Applicants should have an appropriate course background for the internship and at least a B average. Students must be accepted in the course before approaching an agency for an internship. Applications are available from Professor L. Powell and an interest meeting is held just before preregistration each semester.


PSC/IR 394A European Political Internship
Lynda W. Powell
Fall 2018
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Internships are available for students in Edinburgh, London, Brussels, Bonn, Berlin and Madrid. Internships are in English in Edinburgh, London, and Brussels: students need proficiency in the language for the latter four placements. For applications and information, students should contact the Study Abroad Office in Dewey Hall 2147.


PSC 394B European Political Internship Belgium
Summer 2018
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[G] Special application required.


PSC 394C Washington Semester Internship
Lynda W. Powell
Fall 2018
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PSC 399 Washington Semester
Lynda W. Powell
Fall 2018
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These internships provide an opportunity to learn experientially one or more of the following: how government functions; how public policies are created, adopted and implemented; and how political campaigns work. Students intern in Congress, the executive branch, party campaign committees, and lobbying and advocacy groups. For applications and information, students should contact Professor L. Powell. An interest meeting is held each semester.


PSC 404 Probability and Inference
Kevin A. Clarke
Fall 2018 — TR 15:25 - 16:40
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This course in mathematical statistics provides graduate students in political science with a solid foundation in probability and statistical inference. The focus of the course is on the empirical modeling of non-experimental data. While substantive political science will never be far from our minds, our primary goal is to acquire the tools necessary for success in the rest of the econometric sequence. As such, this course serves as a prerequisite for the advanced political science graduate courses in statistical methods (PSC 405, 505, and 506).


PSC 405 Linear Models
Kevin A. Clarke
Spring 2018 — TR 15:25 - 16:40
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In this course, we will examine the linear regression model and its variants. The course has two goals: (1) to provide students with the statistical theory of the linear model, and (2) to provide students with skills for analyzing data. The linear model is a natural starting point for understanding regression models in general, inferences based on them, and problems with our inferences due to data issues or to model misspecification. The model's relative tractability has made it an attractive tool for political scientists, resulting in volumes of research using the methods studied here. Familiarity with the linear model is now essentially required if one wants to be a consumer or producer of modern political science research.


PSC 407 Mathematical Modeling
John Duggan
Fall 2018 — MW 10:00 - 12:00
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This course is the first half of a two-course sequence consisting of PSC 407 and PSC 408. The goal of the sequence is to give a rigorous introduction to the main concepts and results in positive political theory. At the same time, we will teach you the mathematical tools necessary to understand these results, to use them and (if it suits you) to surpass them in your own research in political science. The course will emphasize rigorous logical and deductive reasoning - this skill will prove valuable, even to the student primarily interested in empirical analysis rather than modeling. The sequence is designed to be both a rigorous foundation for students planning on taking further courses in the positive political theory field and a self-contained overview of the field for students who do not intend to do additional coursework in the field.


PSC 408 Positive Political Theory
Tasos Kalandrakis
Spring 2018 — MW 10:00 - 11:30
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This course is part of a rigorous introduction to the main concepts and results in positive political theory. It is the second half of a two-course sequence consisting of PSC 407 and PSC 408. This course will focus on the basics of game theory, which analyzes individual behavior in strategic situations. It will also cover the mathematical tools required to express the theory. Examples and applications will be drawn from several different areas in political science, including the American Congress, voting, international relations, political economy, and law.


PSC 480 Scope of Political Science
Bethany Lacina
Spring 2018 — F 9:30 - 12:00
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The aim of the seminar is to encourage students to examine political science in a reflective, disciplined, critical way. It is primarily designed for entering Ph.D. students, but may be appropriate for undergraduate seniors considering graduate work in political science. We use basic concepts in the philosophy of science to explore a range of specific examples of research in the discipline with the aim of discerning more clearly what it means to say that social and political inquiry is scientific. The discussion covers the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of tools of empirical social science.


PSC 504 Causal Inference
Anderson Frey
Spring 2018 — TR 14:00 - 15:15
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The goal of this course is to give students a comprehensive toolbox for reading and producing cutting-edge applied empirical research, with focus on the theory and practice behind causal inference in social sciences. We will cover treatment effects, experiments, panel data, differences-in-differences, instrumental variables, nonparametric regression, regression discontinuity, matching, synthetic control, and more. Students will read applied papers from both political science and economics, and write review reports examining research designs, identification strategies, and causal claims. They will also produce research proposals that will be presented in class. Applications will be taught with R.


PSC 505 Maximum Likelihood Estimation
Curtis S. Signorino
Fall 2018 — MW 10:30 - 12:00
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The classical linear regression model is inappropriate for many of the most interesting problems in political science. This course builds upon the analytical foundations of PSC 404 and 405, taking the latter's emphasis on the classical linear model as its point of departure. Here students will learn methods to analyze models and data for event counts, durations, censoring, truncation, selection, multinomial ordered/unordered categories, strategic choices, spatial voting models, and time series. A major goal of the course will be to teach students how to develop new models and techniques for analyzing issues they encounter in their own research.


PSC 523 American Politics Field Seminar
Lynda W. Powell, Mary A. Kroeger
Spring 2018 — F 12:00 - 15:00
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This seminar will introduce you to classic as well as contemporary research in American politics. We will discuss the literature both in political institutions (e.g., Congress) and in political behavior (e.g., voting). By covering an array of topics in these areas, the course will provide a foundation for developing a comprehensive understanding of the field and the various directions in which it is now moving.


PSC 530 Urban Change and City Politics
Gerald Gamm
Fall 2018 — T 12:30 - 15:15
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Through intensive reading and discussion, we examine the politics and history of American cities. While we read scholarship drawing on the experiences of an array of cities—including Chicago, New York, Detroit, Boston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, New Haven, Atlanta, Buffalo, and Charlotte—our emphasis is on commonalities in the urban experience as well as on systematic differences. We analyze the relationship of cities to their hinterlands in the early stages of urban development, the rise of ethnic neighborhoods, suburbanization, industrialization, de-industrialization, housing and jobs, concentrated poverty, and population changes. Race, ethnicity, and class are central to this course, not only in understanding changes in neighborhoods but also in the nature of politics and governmental arrangements.


PSC 550 Comparative Politics Field Seminar
G. Bingham Powell, Jr., Gretchen Helmke
Spring 2018 — T 11:00 - 14:00
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This course is the required field seminar for the comparative politics field of the Ph.D. program. Comparative politics is a field that attempts to develop and test theories that can be used to explain political events and patterns across and within political systems, especially nation-states outside the United States. The course is designed to introduce students to classic and contemporary works across a range of topic including: democracy, dictatorship and development; revolutions and violence; culture and social movements; parties and electoral systems; representation and accountability; institutions of governance and political economy. It will also introduce various methodological approaches and issues in the comparative field, including research design and case selection. The reading load is heavy and students are expected to make several presentations and lead discussion of readings, as well as to take two exams. Undergraduates may on enroll only with consent of the instructors.


PSC 555 Democratic Political Processes
G. Bingham Powell, Jr.
Fall 2018 — W 14:15 - 16:55
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This course is designed primarily as a graduate seminar in comparative politics. Its object is to introduce the participants to the comparative study of democratic political processes, a subfield focusing on choosing political leaders and making political decisions in the context of free and competitive elections. We begin by discussing the meaning and measure of contemporary democracy . We then turn to political parties, as key institutions linking citizens and policymakers, and to policymaking institutions. The last part of the course focuses on the comparative study of individual citizens' attitudes and behavior (political culture, participation and voting, interest groups.) Students are responsible for a variety of presentations as well as a midterm and a research paper.. No background in comparative politics is assumed. It is appropriate as an introduction for students new to the field or as an "outside" course. Undergraduates require permission of instructor.


PSC 565 Political Economy of Development
Alexander Lee
Fall 2018 — T 17:00 - 19:40
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This course surveys selected topics in the extensive literature on political and economic development. We will focus on differences in formal and informal institutions across countries. Topics will include the determinants of economic growth, the modernization hypothesis, distributional conflict, government corruption, the success and failure of states to deliver of public goods, among others.


PSC 573 Territory and Group Conflict
Hein Goemans
Fall 2018 — R 12:30 - 15:15
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This graduate seminar examines a long neglected topic: the role of territory in group politics. The goal is to build a basic understanding of why, when, how and which territory becomes contested. We will read from a broad range of disciplines. Each student is expected to write two short papers for two different sessions, which are not to exceed 1500 words. Each paper should provide an independent commentary of your own on some aspect of that week's readings. These papers form the background against which we will discuss the readings in class. In addition, each student is required to write a 20-25 page research paper, which focuses in depth on one of the discussed emerging research agendas. As in other graduate seminars, the course will be conducted almost exclusively through discussion. Hence it is crucial that students do the reading in advance, to set aside time to reflect on the readings, and to prepare comments and questions.


PSC 576 Graduate Research Seminar
Anderson Frey, Lawrence Rothenberg
Fall 2018 — T 10:30 - 12:00
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Designed as a forum for upper-level doctoral students who have completed formal coursework to present ongoing research. Students regularly present research either stemming from their dissertations or from ancillary projects.


PSC 576 Graduate Research Seminar
Scott Abramson, Lawrence Rothenberg
Spring 2018 — W 14:00 - 16:40
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Designed as a forum for upper-level doctoral students who have completed formal coursework to present ongoing research. Students regularly present research either stemming from their dissertations or from ancillary projects.


PSC 577 Theories of Conflict
Mark Fey, Hein Goemans
Spring 2018 — M 14:00 - 16:40
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This course examines the literature on conflict that has developed in the last decade. We will examine recent formal literature as well as the latest substantive (non-formal) literature on conflict. The course will help graduate students identify the broad direction of international conflict studies and will also permit graduate students to pursue topics or ideas of their own interest. To that end, we set aside two classes for "model building sessions" where students can explore approaches to formalize some of the ideas in the substantive literature, or explore extensions of the current formal literature. Students should have taken or be concurrently taking PSC 584 or have an equivalent knowledge of complete and incomplete information game theory.


PSC 584 Game Theory
Mark Fey
Fall 2018 — TR 10:30 - 12:00
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This course is the third semester of the formal theory sequence for graduate students. It focuses on teaching students more sophisticated tools for modeling more complex games. Specifically, the course concentrates on games of incomplete information such as signaling games and communication games and develops analytical tools such as Bayesian-Nash equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and equilibrium refinements. The course also covers repeated games, bargaining games and equilibrium existence in a rigorous fashion. The prerequisites for the course are PSC 407 and 408, or an equivalent background in complete information game theory. Grading is based on homework assignments and a midterm and final exam.


PSC 586 Voting and Elections
Mark Fey
Fall 2018 — F 9:30 - 12:00
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This course covers much of the modern game-theoretic literature on models of voting and elections. It is meant to expose students to the techniques and models used in this line of research. Some of the topics covered include probabilistic voting, policy-motivated candidates, candidate entry, strategic voting, and issues of information in elections, including uncertainty on the part of voters and candidates, and problems associated with private information in elections. The course covers both complete and incomplete information models and thus students must have a working knowledge of Bayesian games prior to taking this course.


PSC 586 Voting and Elections
Brenton Kenkel
Spring 2018 — M 9:30 - 12:30
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Social networks pervade political and economic life. They shape how we acquire political knowledge, how we discover job opportunities, and how we shape and maintain norms. The multitude of ways that networks affect the world make it critical to understand how network structures impact behavior, which network structures are likely to emerge, and why we organize ourselves as we do. Drawing on a wide variety of fields, this course will review the literature, both theoretical and empirical, on social, economic, and political networks. Topics will include basic network structures, network formation, games on networks, learning, diffusion, and methods for network analysis.


PSC 587 Structural Modeling and Estimation
Tasos Kalandrakis, Sergio Montero
Fall 2018 — TR 13:30 - 15:00
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Structural models enable social scientists to conduct rich analyses of how institutions and public policy shape individual or collective decision-making. The structural approach to empirical research is particularly useful in settings where more traditional methods cannot be applied, such as when agents behave strategically or when we wish to predict the consequences of never-before-observed policy interventions. This course covers the fundamentals of structural modeling and estimation. Depending on student interest, applications from economics, marketing, and political science will be considered.