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A Cobalt Metallopeptide Electrocatalyst for the Selective Reduction of Nitrite to Ammonium. Yixing Guo, Jesse R. Stroka Banu Kandemir, Claire E. Dickerson, Kara L. Bren. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b09612

Hydrogen Evolution from Water by Cobalt-Mimochrome VI*a, a Synthetic Mini-Protein, Vincenzo Firpo, Jennifer M. Le, Vincenzo Pavone, Angela Lombardi, Kara L. Bren, Chem Sci. 2018. DOI: 10.1039/C8SC01948G

Beyond Fossil Fuel-Driven Nitrogen Transformations, Jinguan G. Chen, Richard M. Crooks, Lance Seefeldt, Kara L. Bren, R. Morris Bullock, Marcetta Y. Darensbourg, Patrick L. Holland, Brian Hoffman, Michael J. Janik, Anne K. Jones, Mercouri Kanatzidis, Paul King, Kyle M. Lancaster, Sergei Lymar, Peter Pfromm, Willam F. Schneider, Richard R. Schrock, Science. 2018. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6611

Influence of Heme c Attachment on Heme Conformation and Potential, Jesse K. Kleingardner, Benjamin D. Levin, Giorgio Zoppellaro, Kristoffer Andersson, Sean J. Elliot, Kara L. Bren, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s00775-1018-1603-3.

Carbene Capture in a Myoglobin Mutant, Emily H. Edwards and Kara L. Bren. Nat Catalysis. 2018. DOI: 10.1038/s41929-018-0129-y.


Covalent Bonding of Heme to Protein Prevents Heme Capture by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Valerie Sgheiza, Bethany Novick, Sarah Stanton, Jeanetta Pierce, Breanne Kalmeta, Melody Frink, Kyle Grimaldi, Kara L. Bren, Lea Vacca Michel. FEBS Open Bio. 2017. DOI:10.1002/2211-5463.12324.

Engineered Biomolecular Catalysts. Kara L. Bren. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b09896.

Locked and Loaded for Apoptosis. Kara L. Bren and Emma L. Raven, Science. 2017. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5587.

Photoinduced Charge Separation in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Protein Integrated Systems. Lenore Kubie, Amanda R. Amori, Saikat Chakraborty, Kara L. Bren, and Todd. Krauss. Nanoscale Horizons. 2017. DOI: 10.1039/C6NH00172F.

Efficient and Flexible Preparation of Biosynthetic Microperoxidases, Erin C. Kleingardner, Wesley B. Asher, and Kara L. Bren, Biochemistry. 2017. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00915.


Go with the Electron Flow: Effects of Heme Electronic Structure on Electron Transfer, Kara L. Bren. Israel Journal of Chemistry. 2016. DOI: 10.1002/ijch.201600021. Special Issue in Celebration of Harry Gray's 80th Birthday.

Extracellular Electron Transfer on Sticky Paper Electrodes: Microbial Fuel Cell with a Carbon Paste Paper Anode, Peter Lamberg and Kara L. Bren, ACS Energy Letters. 2016. DOI: acsenergylett.6b00435.

NMR Analysis of Spin States and Spin Densities, in Spin States in Biochemistry and Inorganic Chemistry: Influence on Structure and Reactivity. 2016. DOI: 10.1002/9781118898277.ch16 Edited by M. Swart and M. Costas. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, United Kingdom.

Semisynthetic and Biomolecular Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts, Banu Kandemir, Saikat Chakraborty, Yixing Guo and Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem. 2016. DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b02054 (Article in Forum on Small Molecule Activation: From Biological Principles to Energy Applications).

Hydrogen Evolution from Water under Aerobic Conditions Catalyzed by a Cobalt-ATCUN Metallopeptide., Banu Kandemir, Lenore Kubie, Yixing Guo, Brian Sheldon and Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem. 2016. DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b02157 (Featured on journal cover).



Discovery of the Magnetic Behavior of Hemoglobin: A Beginning of Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kara L. Bren, Richard Eisenberg, and Harry B. Gray, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2015. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1515704112

Biological Significance and Applications of Heme c Proteins and Peptides, Jesse G. Kleingardner, and Kara L. Bren, Acc. Chem. Res., 2015, 48, 1845-1852. DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00106

Methionine Ligand Lability of Homologous Monoheme Cytochromes c, Benjamin D. Levin, Kelly A. Walsh, Kristal K. Sullivan, Kara L. Bren, and Sean J. Elliott, Inorg. Chem. 2015. DOI: 10.1021/ic501186h

Effects of Protein Structure on Iron-Polypeptide Vibrational Dynamic Coupling in Cytochrome c, Mary Grace I. Galinato, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Jesse G. Kleingardner, Sherri Martin, Jiyong Zhao, Wolfgang Sturhahn, E. Ercan Alp, Kara L. Bren, and Nicolai Lehnert, Biochemistry. 2015. DOI: 10.1021/bi501430z

Multidisciplinary Approaches to Solar Hydrogen, Kara L. Bren, J. Royal Soc. Interface. 2015. Interface Focus 5: 20140091. DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2014.0091



Affinity Purification of Heme-tagged Proteins, Wesley B. Asher, Kara L. Bren, Methods in Molecular Biology, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1034-2_2

Hydrogen Evolution from Neutral Water Under Aerobic Conditions Catalyzed by Cobalt-microperoxidase-11. Jesse G. Kleingardner, Banu Kandemir, and Kara L. Bren, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014. DOI: 10.1021/ja406818h

Investigations of Heme Distortion, Low-Frequency Vibrational Excitations, and Electron Transfer in Cytochrome c. Yuhan Sun, Abdelkirm Benabbas, Weiqiao Zengk, Jesse G. Kleingardner, Kara L. Bren, and Paul M. Champion, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2014. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1322274111 



Redox State Dependence of Axial Ligand Dynamics in Nitrosomonas europaea Cytochrome c552.Ravinder Kaur and Kara L.Bren, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2013. DOI: 10.1021/jp4064577

The Influence of Heme Ruffling on Spin Densities in Ferricytochromes c Probed by Heme Core 13C NMR, Jesse G. Kleingardner, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem., 2013. DOI: 10.1021/ic401250d

Conformational Change and Human Cytochrome c Function: Mutation of Residue 41 Modulates Caspase Activation and Destabilizes Met-80 Coordination. Tracy M. Josephs, Matthew D. Liptak, Gillian Hughes, Alexandra Lo, Rebecca M. Smith, Sigurd M. Wilbanks, Kara L. Bren, and Elizabeth C. Ledgerwood, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s00775-012-0973-1

Structural Characterization of Nitrosomonas europaea Cytochrome c552 Variants with Marked Differences in Electronic Structure, Mehmet Can, Jolanta Krucinska, Giorgio Zoppellaro, Niels H. Andersen Joseph E. Wedekind, Hans-Petter Hersleth, K. Kristoffer Andersson, and Kara L. Bren, ChemBioChem, 2013. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201300118

Single-molecule Analysis of Cytochrome c Folding by Monitoring the Lifetime of an Attached Fluorescent Probe. Andrea J. Lee, Wesley B. Asher, Harry A. Stern, Kara L. Bren, Todd D. Krauss, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013. DOI: 10.1021/jz401259y



Heme-Protein Vibrational Couplings in Cytochrome c Provide a Dynamic Link that Connects the Heme-Iron and the Protein Surface, Mary Grace I. Galinato, Jesse G. Kleingardner, Sarah E. J. Bowman, E. Ercan Alp, Jiyong Zhao, Kara L. Bren, and Nicolai Lehnert, Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. U.S.A., 2012. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1200345109

Cytochrome c heme lyase can mature a fusion peptide composed of the amino-terminal residues of horse cytochrome c. Wesley B. Asher and Kara L. Bren, Chem Comm., 2012, 48. DOI: 10.1039/c2cc31112g.

NMR Spectroscopy of Paramagnetic Heme Proteins, Kara L. Bren, Current Inorganic Chemistry2012. DOI: 10.2174/1877944111202030273



Modulation of Ligand-Field Parameters by Heme Ruffling in Cytochromes c Revealed by EPR Spectroscopy, Mehmet Can, Giorgio Zoppellaro, K. Kristoffer Andersson, Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem., 2011. DOI: 10.1021/ic201479q

Methionine Ligand Lability in Bacterial Monoheme Cytochromes c: An Electrochemical Study, Benjamin D. Levin, Mehmet Can, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Kara L. Bren, Sean J. Elliott, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2011. DOI: 10.1021/jp203292h

Comparing substrate specificity between cytochrome c maturation and cytochrome c heme lyase systems for cytochrome c biogenesis, Jesse G. Kleingardner, Kara L. Bren, Metallomics, 2011. DOI: 10.1039/c0mt00086h

Temperature Dependent Equilibrium Native to Unfolded Protein Dynamics and Properties Observed with IR Absorption and 2D IR Vibrational Echo Experiments, Jean K. Chung, Megan C. Thielges, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Kara L. Bren, M. D. Fayer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011. DOI: 10.1021/ja111009s

The Proapoptotic G41S Mutation to Human Cytochrome c Alters the Heme Electronic Structure and Increases the Electron Self-Exchange Rate, Matthew D. Liptak, Robert D. Fagerlund, Elizabeth C. Ledgerwood, Sigurd M. Wilbanks, Kara L. Bren, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011. DOI: 10.1021/ja106328k



Zinc Porphyrin as a Donor for FRET in Zinc Cytochrome c, Andrea J. Lee, Amy A. Ensign, Todd D. Krauss, and Kara L. Bren, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010. DOI: 10.1021/ja909106p.

NMR and DFT Investigation of Heme Ruffling: Functional Implications for Cytochrome c, Matthew D. Liptak, Xin Wen, and Kara L. Bren, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010. DOI: 10.1021/ja102098p.

A Heme Fusion Tag for Protein Affinity Purification and Quantitation, Wesley B. Asher and Kara L. Bren, Protein Science, 2010. DOI: 10.1002/pro.460

Variation and Analysis of Second-sphere Interactions and Axial Histidinate Character in c-type Cytochromes, Sarah E. J. Bowman and Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem., 2010. DOI: 10.1021/ic100899k



Studies of Ferric Heme Proteins with Highly Anisotropic/Highly Axial Low Spin (S= 1/2) Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signals with Two Histidines or Histidine and Methionine Axial Fe Coordination. Giorgio Zoppellaro, Kara L. Bren, Amy A. Ensign, Espen Harbitz, Ravinder Kaur, Hans–Petter Hersleth, Ulf Ryde, Lars Hederstedt, and K. Kristoffer Andersson, Biopolymers, 2009. DOI: 10.1002/bip.21267



Modulation of the Ligand-Field Anisotropy in a Series of Ferric Low-Spin Cytochrome c Mutants derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytochrome c-551 and Nitrosomonas europaea Cytochrome c-552: A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study. Giorgio Zoppellaro, Espen Harbitz, Ravinder Kaur, Amy A. Ensign, Kara L. Bren, and K. Kristoffer Andersson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008. DOI: 10.1021/ja8033312

Methionine Ligand Lability of Type I Cytochromes c: Detection of Ligand Loss Using Protein Film Voltammetry. Tao Ye, Ravinder Kaur, F. Timur Senguen, Lea V. Michel, Kara L. Bren and Sean J. Elliott, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008. DOI: 10.1021/ja801071n

Zinc porphyrin: A fluorescent acceptor in studies of Zn-cytochrome c unfolding by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Amy A. Ensign, Iris Jo, Ilyas Yildirim, Todd D. Krauss, and Kara L. Bren, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2008. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0802737105

The chemistry and biochemistry of heme c: functional bases for covalent attachment. Sarah E. J. Bowman and Kara L. Bren, Nat. Prod. Rep., 2008. DOI: 10.1039/b717196j

Native and Unfolded Cytochrome c - Comparison of Dynamics using 2D-IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy. Seongheun Kim, Jean K. Chung, Kyungwon Kwak, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Kara L. Bren, Biman Bagchi and M. D. Fayer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2008. DOI: 10.1021/jp802246h



Heme Attachment Motif Mobility Tunes Cytochrome c Redox Potential. Lea V. Michel, Tao Ye, Sarah E. J. Bowman, Benjamin D. Levin, Megan A. Hahn, Brandy S. Russell, Sean J. Elliott, and Kara L. Bren, Biochemistry, 2007. DOI: 10.1021/bi701177j

Effects of Heme Pocket Structure and Mobility on Cytochrome c Stability. Xin Wen, Kirti M. Patel, Brandy S. Russell, and Kara L. Bren, Biochemistry, 2007. DOI: 10.1021/bi602380v



Cytochrome c552 Mutants: Structure and Dynamics at the Active Site Probed by Multidimensional NMR and Vibration Echo Spectroscopy. Aaron M. Massari, Brian L. McClain, Ilya J. Finkelstein, Andrew P. Lee, Heather L. Reynolds, Kara L. Bren, and Michael D. Fayer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006. DOI: 10.1021/jp054959q



Redox Properties of Wild-Type and Heme-Binding Loop Mutants of Bacterial Cytochromes cMeasured by Direct Electrochemistry. Tao Ye, Ravinder Kaur, Xin Wen, Kara L. Bren, and Sean J. Elliott, Inorg. Chem., 2005. DOI: 10.1021/ic051003l

Heme Axial Methionine Fluxion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Asn64Gln Cytochrome c551. Xin Wen and Kara L. Bren, Inorg. Chem., 2005. DOI: 10.1021/ic050976i

The Influence of Aqueous versus Glassy Solvents on Protein Dynamics: Vibrational Echo Experiments and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Aaron M. Massari, Ilya J. Finkelstein, Brian L. McClain, Anne Goj, Xin Wen, Kara L. Bren, Roger F. Loring, and Michael D. Fayer, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005. DOI: 10.1021/ja053627w

An Obligatory Intermediate in the Folding Pathway of Cytochrome c552 from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. Carlo Travaglini-Allocatelli, Stefano Gianni, Vikash K. Dubey, Allesandro Borgia, Adele Di Matteo, Daniele Bonivento, Francesca Cutruzzolà, Kara L. Bren, and Maurizio Brunori, J. Biol. Chem., 2005. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M502628200

Suppression of Axial Methionine Fluxion in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Gln64Asn-Cytochrome c552. Xin Wen and Kara L. Bren, Biochemistry, 2005. DOI: 10.1021/bi047556+.



Folding, Conformational Changes, and Dynamics of Cytochromes c Probed by NMR Spectroscopy. Kara L. Bren, Jason A. Kellogg, Ravinder Kaur, and Xin Wen, Inorg. Chem., 2004. DOI: 10.1021/ic048925t

Cytochrome rC552, Formed During Expression of the Truncated, Thermus thermophilusCytochrome c552 Gene in the Cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, Reacts Spontaneously to Form Protein-Bound, 2-Formyl-4-vinyl (Spirographis) Heme. James A. Fee, Thomas R. Todaro, Eugene Luna, Donita Sanders, Laura Hunsicker-Wang, Kirti M. Patel, Kara L. Bren, Ester Gomez-Moran, Michael G. Hill, Jingyuan Ai, Thomas M. Loehr, W. Anthony Oertling, Pamela A. Williams, C. David Stout, Duncan McRee, and Andrzej Pastuszyn, Biochemistry, 2004. DOI: 10.1021/bi048968l

Heme Axial Methionine Fluxionality in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Cytochrome c552. Linghao Zhong, Xin Wen, Terry M. Rabinowitz, Brandy S. Russell, Elizabeth F. Karan, Kara L. Bren, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0402033101



Backbone Dynamics and Hydrogen Exchange of Oxidized Pseudomonas aeruginosaFerricytochrome c551. Brandy S. Russell, Linghao Zhong, Maria Giulia Bigotti, Francesca Cutruzzolà, and Kara L. Bren, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2003. DOI: 10.1007/s00775-002-0401-z



Characterization of Recombinant Horse Cytochrome c Synthesized with the Assistance of Escherichia coli Cytochrome c Maturation Factors. Jason A. Kellogg and Kara L. Bren, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2002. DOI: 10.1016/S1570-9639(02)00471-5

Denaturant Dependence of Equilibrium Unfolding Intermediates and Denatured State Structure of Horse Ferricytochrome c.  Brandy S. Russell and Kara L. Bren, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2002. DOI: 10.1007/s00775-002-0381-z

Peptide Mimotopes of Pneumococcal Capsular PS of 6B Serotype. A Peptide Mimotope Can Bind to Two Unrelated Antibodies.  Jeon-Soo Shin, Jigui Yu, Jisheng Lin, Linghao Zhong, Kara L. Bren, and Moon H. Nahm., J. Immunol., 2002.

Characterization of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Cytochromes c552 Expressed in the Cytoplasm and Periplasm of Escherichia coli.  Elizabeth F. Karan, Brandy S. Russell and Kara L. Bren, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem., 2002. DOI: 10.1007/s007750100292



Recombinant Cytochrome rC557 Obtained from Escherichia coli Cells Expressing a Truncated Thermus thermophilus cycA gene: Heme Inversion in an Improperly Matured Protein.  Duncan E. McRee, Pamela A. Williams, Vandana Sridhar, Andrzej Pastuszyn, Kara L. Bren, Kirti M. Patel, Ying Chen, Thomas R. Todaro, Donita Sanders, Eugene Luna, and James A. Fee, J. Biol. Chem., 2001. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M008421200



Integrity of Thermus thermophilus Cytochrome c552 Synthesized by Escherichia coli Cells Expressing the Host-Specific Cytochrome c Maturation Genes, ccmABCDEFGH:  Biochemical, Spectral and Structural Characterization of the Recombinant Protein. James A. Fee, Ying Chen, Thomas R. Todaro, Kara L. Bren, Kirti M. Patel, Michael G. Hill, Ester Gomez-Moran, Thomas M. Loehr, Jingyuan Ai, Linda Thöny-Meyer, Pamela A. Williams, Enrico Stura, Vandana Sridhar, and Duncan E. McRee, Protein Sci., 2000.

NMR Investigation of Ferricytochrome c Unfolding: Detection of an Equilibrium Unfolding Intermediate and Residual Structure in the Denatured State.  Brandy S. Russell, Rory Melenkivitz, and Kara L. Bren, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S., 2000. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.150239397